White roofs streets could curb global warming

first_imgThe idea of painting our roofs and roads white to offset global warming is not new, but a recent study has calculated just how significantly white surfaces could impact greenhouse gas emissions. Last week, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and UC Berkeley presented their study at California’s annual Climate Change Research Conference in Sacramento. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. White, green or black roofs? New report compares economic payoffs If the 100 largest cities in the world replaced their dark roofs with white shingles and their asphalt-based roads with concrete or other light-colored material, it could offset 44 metric gigatons (billion tons) of greenhouse gases, the study shows. That amounts to more greenhouse gas than the entire human population emits in one year, according to a recent article in the Los Angeles Times. The strategy could also offset the growth in carbon dioxide emissions, which account for about 75% of greenhouse gases, for the next 10 years.The reason for white is simple: white reflects the sun´s rays more than black does. The study´s coauthor, LBNL physicist Hashem Akbari, explained that it takes about 10 square meters of white roof to offset 1 metric ton of carbon dioxide. In warm climates, white roofs have the additional benefit of lowering the cost of air conditioning by up to 20% in hot months.It´s this second reason of reduced cooling costs that prompted the state of California to require in 2005 that flat-roofed commercial buildings have white roofs. In 2009, the state will require that new and retrofitted residential and commercial, with both flat and sloped roofs, be installed with heat-reflective roofing. The requirements are part of California´s energy-efficient building code.Globally, roofs account for about 25% of the surface of most cities, and pavement accounts for about 35%. Even without cutting industrial pollution from current levels, installing white roofs and pavements could offset more than 10 years of emissions growth, according to the conference data. Economically, the scientists estimate that white roofs and roads could save billions of dollars per year in reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Besides offsetting global warming and reducing cooling costs, white surfaces offer a third benefit: they could cool a city by a few degrees, which dramatically reduces smog.The LBNL physicists plan to work with the United Nations to persuade the world´s major tropical and temperate cities to adopt white roofing and pavement strategies.Akbari, along with coauthors Surabi Menon of LBNL and California Energy Commissioner Arthur Rosenfield, will publish the study, called “Global Cooling: Increasing Worldwide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2,” in an upcoming issue of the journal Climate Change.More information: Global Cooling Presentationvia: Los Angeles Times center_img Explore further Citation: White roofs, streets could curb global warming (2008, September 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-09-white-roofs-streets-curb-global.htmllast_img read more

Programmer has fun with monkeys typing Shakespeare theory

first_img Anderson isn’t testing the theory with real monkeys, that whole idea was pretty much laid to rest when researchers a while back gave a group of monkeys a keyboard and after month of effort found they had little more than an affinity for the letter “S” and disdain for modern contrivances (they urinated on it). Instead he’s using virtual monkeys on computers and a mathematical algorithm to pick out letter sequences typed at random. He started last month, using Amazon’s SC2 cloud computing system and has already put together one of the Bard’s poems, though it is difficult to ascertain from the experiment just what exactly is being proved. That typing nine random characters as a group will eventually reproduce a nine letter sequence that duplicates nine letters of something Shakespeare once wrote? That piecing such sequences together will eventually result in the whole work being reproduced? Interesting, but hardly science. But then, Anderson, a homespun programmer, clearly isn’t trying to shake up the world. He’s just trying to have some fun. Less Technical Explanation Citation: Programmer has fun with monkeys typing Shakespeare theory (2011, September 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-programmer-fun-monkeys-shakespeare-theory.html Infinite Monkey Technical Discussion What’s perhaps more interesting are the reactions to his efforts from bloggers and reporters for various media and science outlets, especially those that seem to want to point out how proving the theory right or wrong would take more time than we humans will ever have; which seems premature, when you consider that the theory does say something about using an infinite number of monkeys after all. Surely using some bit of calculus would show that as the number of monkeys approaches infinity, the number of completed works would be go up pretty quickly as well. Seems to me if you went that route, you could have the whole job done before breakfast. At any rate, the whole point is rather moot, isn’t it? After all, does it really matter if monkeys typing randomly could randomly reproduce anything all? A more important question would seem to be, if you could get monkeys to type, wouldn’t they eventually, given enough time, tell us all what they really think of us and our crazy use of them for our own experimental purposes? Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Sometimes you just have to shake your head at some experiments done in the name of science, and go with the flow, or as Jesse Anderson puts it on his blog, “Keep Calm and Carry On.” He’s conducting an experiment, for fun, to see if he can reproduce some part of the old philosophy question of whether putting infinite numbers of monkeys before infinite numbers of typewriters, working indefinitely, would at some point result in the reproduction of the entire works of Shakespeare. Anderson’s efforts have created quite a stir on Internet, though for different reasons. Some see the humor in his approach, others point out how his efforts aren’t really proving anything at all. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Modern society made up of all types This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Powerstrip lookalike hacks office networks

first_img Citation: Power-strip lookalike hacks office networks (2012, July 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-07-power-strip-lookalike-hacks-office-networks.html The device has Bluetooth and Wi-Fi adapters, a cellular connection, dual Ethernet ports, and hacking and remote access tools that let security professionals test the network and call home to be remotely controlled via the cellular network. The device comes with easy-to-use scripts that cause it to boot up and then phone home for instructions. A “text-to-bash” feature allows sending commands to the device using SMS messages. Power Pwn is preloaded with Debian 6, Metasploit, SET, Fast-Track, w3af, Kismet, Aircrack, SSLstrip, nmap, Hydra, dsniff, Scapy, Ettercap, Bluetooth/VoIP/IPv6 tools and. It really can function as a 120/240v AC outlet strip.The Power Pwn has funding from a new Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) program called Cyber Fast Track (CFT), which is looking to advance new cyber-defense tools. The officially stated purpose of CFT is to fund research to be performed by boutique security companies, individuals, and hacker/maker-spaces, and allow them to keep the commercial intellectual property for what they create. While the purpose is to place this in the right hands for identifying network weaknesses, Tony Bradley of PCWorld is asking what about the device landing in the wrong hands, as an attacker could communicate with the device from inside the network or around the world. The device can, after all, bypass Network Access Control and other security measures in place to keep unauthorized devices off the network. It can tunnel through firewalls, he notes, maintain an encrypted connection to the attacker, and operate in stealth mode. “The fact is that any attacker with $1,300 can buy one and surreptitiously plant it in your office,” he said. His advice for those in business settings is to check out and mark their office surge protectors and strips and allow only approved power strips to be in the inventory. The testing platform covers the range from physical to application layers. Pwnie Express is taking pre-orders for the device with a pricetag of $1295 and an estimated ship date of September 30.The Pwnie Express product description says it is a first-to-market “commercial penetration testing drop box platform” for remote security testing of corporate facilities, including branch offices and retail locations. (Phys.org) — Pwnie Express, the company specializing in cyber security products, calls its new device “ingenious.” Bloggers hearing about it are paying attention to the fact that it is a power-strip lookalike but with far more ambitious intentions, such as stealth-penetrating a corporate network. Power Pwn is the name of the little device for security testing on corporate networks. It looks like an under the office desk power strip. It is actually a testing platform where security can be put to the test, a self-hacking tool for launching remotely-activated Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Ethernet attacks. Dell Introduces Switches With Advanced Security, Power Explore further More information: pwnieexpress.com/products/power-pwn © 2012 Phys.Org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Research pair find nitric oxide governs fightorflight response in crickets w video

first_img Play Movie of two male crickets fighting. The first part shows their first fight, which establishes a clear winner and a loser, and the second part shows reengagement of the loser (left) with the previous winner two minutes later. Note the loser avoids all contact with the winner (post-conflict depression of aggression – or loser effect). Stevenson and colleagues show that this effect is due to the gaseous modulator nitric oxide (NO). Credit: Paul A. Stevenson and Jan Rillich The fight-or-flight response is well documented in a wide variety of mammals, including humans. It has also been found in insects. Still, how it works exactly continues to be a mystery. Suspecting it might have to do with brain chemicals, Stevenson and Rillich focused on one brain chemical in particular: nitric oxide. It has been shown to speed up snails and to impact behavior in other animals. To find out if it might have an impact on the flight-or-flight response, the team decided to test its impact on Mediterranean field crickets, which are well known for their animated brawls.Prior research has shown that when fighting, nitric oxide is generated in the brains of the crickets, though its purpose has been a mystery. To learn more, the researchers put test crickets in a box and filmed them as they grew aggressive and fought and continued filming until one or the other of the crickets gave up and ran away. To test the impact of nitric oxide on the crickets, the researchers conducted experiments where one or both had more or less of the chemical introduced artificially into their brains, and then watched to see how it impacted their behavior. They found that adding more of the chemical tended to switch on the flight mechanism—the cricket would stop fighting and run away, and would continue to cow before the other cricket until the chemical was naturally washed out of its system (or was blocked artificially by the researchers). Conversely, they found that restricting the chemical tended to cause the crickets to be even more aggressive and to keep on fighting longer.It is not known of course if the same response might occur in mammals, particularly humans, but the idea is interesting—perhaps someday soon, instead of tossing teargas into rioting crowds, police officers can instead toss nitric oxide bombs that will cause everyone to give up the cause and run home. Citation: Research pair find nitric oxide governs fight-or-flight response in crickets (w/ video) (2015, March 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-03-pair-nitric-oxide-fight-or-flight-response.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further More information: Adding up the odds—Nitric oxide signaling underlies the decision to flee and post-conflict depression of aggression, Science Advances 13 Mar 2015: Vol. 1 no. 2 e1500060 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500060 AbstractFighting is dangerous, which is why animals choose to flee once the costs outweigh the benefits, but the mechanisms underlying this decision-making process are unknown. By manipulating aggressive signaling and applying nitrergic drugs, we show that the evolutionarily conserved neuromodulator nitric oxide (NO), which has a suppressing effect on aggression in mammals, can play a decisive role. We found that crickets, which exhibit spectacular fighting behavior, flee once the sum of their opponent’s aversive actions accrued during fighting exceeds a critical amount. This effect of aversive experience is mediated by the NO signaling pathway. Rather than suppressing aggressive motivation, NO increases susceptibility to aversive stimuli and with it the likelihood to flee. NO’s effect is manifested in losers by prolonged avoidance behavior, characteristic for social defeat in numerous species. Intriguingly, fighting experience also induces, via NO, a brief susceptible period to aversive stimuli in winners just after victory. Our findings thus reveal a key role for NO in the mechanism underlying the decision to flee and post-conflict depression in aggressive behavior. Picture of an aggressive male cricket, with spread mandibles, about to attack an opponent (out of focus in left foreground). Credit: Paul A. Stevenson and Jan Rillich © 2015 Phys.org (Phys.org)—A pair of researchers working in Germany has found that the chemical nitric oxide has a profound impact on the fight-or-flight response of fighting crickets. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, Paul Stevenson and Jan Rillich describe experiments they conducted with crickets and nitric oxide, what they observed and their conclusions. Winning fights increases aggression, even in crickets PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreenlast_img read more

Metallic all the way

first_imgKickstart the year with a bang. Metal Battle I looks like it is going to be a treat for all headbangers. Amidst all the tributes, alternate rock music and the progressive sorts, Metal Battle I seems to be dedicated to the real rockstars over one evening.The gig brings together four bands on this debut installment — Heisenberg, Silent Existence, Jehova and Winter Gate. These four bands will be performing back to back in the Capital this weekend.While Heisenberg (the name comes from the love the band has for quantum physics, claim the band), formed in 2010, experiments with jazz and indian classical influences in metal, Silent Existence is about ‘new metal’. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Jehova hopes to get the attention with their ‘signature stage act’ and Winter Gate claims to have transformed from a ‘thrash metal outfit to a thrash geath joint until they finally evolved into pure and progressive death metal.’Silent Existence has a name for itself already and Jehovah is touted to be one of the freshest acts on stage. But Winter Gate and Heisenberg are in no mood to play second fiddle. This is perhaps the first all metal gig to hit the city where four bands will be taking the stage and they are all pretty pumped to get their acts on. While there are no specific collaborations on the cards, with young talent on stage – an interesting mix and match of styles cannot be entirely ruled out, we say!While most of the bands are either prepping for their original albums or rocking away in studios on original compositions, a lot of what Metal Battle hopes to get on stage. So head over this Sunday for some good old headbanging.DETAILAt: Cafe Morrison, E-12, South Extension Part 2 Market When:20 January Timings: 7 pm to 10 pm For Reservations, Call: 9910039456last_img read more

The marriage mantras

first_imgShe is a Master’s in English who pursued Journalism and Mass Communication to remain connected to people through her articles and write ups. And as a writer she communicates on burning issues through newspapers, magazines and blogs. She is a popular blogger in the web and enjoys a huge readership.Meet Padmini Sharma, the author of Spice up your Marriage. She was in the Capital recently sharing some valuable inputs about good marriages, the pitfalls and how to sort it all out. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Having travelled the world Sharma has gathered huge experience about human relationships – how things work out or don’t work out in a relationship; especially marriage in today’s highly exposed life style. There are times when every marriage goes through a bad patch – it is, then, up to the husband and wife to hold the rudder steady and guide the rocking boat to a safe port. There are often internal tensions and external entities, which come in the way of retaining that faith. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixIn her debut venture Spice up your Marriage, Sharma shares some unique and proven solutions she learnt during the course of her own marriage through this book. She elaborates the usual and unusual situations, which come up when a family stays under a roof and shares her strategy on how to sail through them. While there is no magic formula of saving a relationship that’s falling apart, it often only takes a change in one’s perspectives to turn the situation around and get a grip on it.So whether you are married or not, pick this one up.last_img read more

Shraddha Kapoor roots for childhood friend Zoa

first_imgIn an industry where catfights are considered common, actress Shraddha Kapoor has come forward to support her ‘childhood friend’ and actress Zoa Morani for her forthcoming film ‘Bhaag Johnn’.“My childhood friend’s film releases this Friday! All the best for #BhaagJohnny @zoamorani! #25thSept,’ Shraddha tweeted on Wednesday. Zoa, who was last seen in the 2011 film Always Kabhi Kabhi, will be seen as the love interest of actor Kunal Kemmu in the film, which is based on the circle of karma. Directed by Shivam Nair, Bhaag Johnny, also stars Mandana Karimi and Manasi Scott, will hit the screens on September 25.last_img read more

Eat seafood meal once a week to stay sharp

first_imgIncluding seafood or other foods containing omega-3 fatty acids at least once a week in your diet may protect against age-related memory loss and thinking problems, says a study.The age-related memory loss and thinking problems of study-participants, who reported eating seafood less than once a week declined more rapidly compared to those who ate at least one seafood meal per week.“This study helps show that while cognitive abilities naturally decline as part of the normal ageing process, there is something that we can do to mitigate this process,” said study senior author Martha Clare Morris from Rush University Medical Centre in Chicago, US. The findings were published online in the journal Neurology. The researchers followed 915 people with a mean age of 81.4 years for an average of five years.  At study enrollment, none had signs of dementia. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’During the course of the study, each person received annual, standardised testing for cognitive ability in five areas — episodic memory, working memory, semantic memory, visuospatial ability and perceptual speed. The study group also completed annual food frequency questionnaires, allowing the researchers to compare participants’ reported seafood intake with changes in their cognitive abilities as measured by the tests.The questionnaires included four types of seafood: tuna sandwiches; fish sticks, fish cakes and fish sandwiches; fresh fish as a main dish; and shrimp, lobster and crab.   Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe participants were divided into two groups: those who ate at least one of those seafood meals per week and those who ate less than one of those seafood meals per week. People who ate more seafood had reduced rates of decline in the semantic memory, which is memory of verbal information. They also had slower rates of decline in a test of perceptual speed, or the ability to quickly compare letters, objects and patterns, the findings showed.Seafood is the direct nutrient source of a type of omega-3 fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid) that is the main structural component of the brain.last_img read more

Low love hormone levels less empathy

first_imgPeople suffering from medical conditions causing low levels of oxytocin – love hormone – perform worse on empathy tasks, reveals a new research.Oxytocin is often referred to as the ‘love hormone’ due to its role in human behaviours including sexual arousal, recognition, trust, anxiety and mother-infant bonding. It is produced by the hypothalamus – an area of the brain that controls mood and appetite – and stored in the pituitary gland, a pea-sized organ that sits at the base of the skull. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfIn the study, researchers from the University of Cardiff, Wales, investigated empathic behaviour in people who they suspected of having reduced oxytocin levels due to one of two medical conditions caused in response to pituitary surgery.The findings revealed that CDI and HP groups performed significantly worse on empathy tasks, compared to controls. In particular, CDI participants with the lowest levels of oxytocin produced the worst performances. Researchers said this is the first study which looks at low oxytocin as a result of medical, as opposed to psychological, disorders. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive“If replicated, the results from our patient groups suggest it is also important to consider medical conditions carrying a risk of low oxytocin levels,” said Katie Daughters from the University of Cardiff. Further, patients who have undergone pituitary surgery, and in particular those who have acquired CDI as a consequence, may present with lower oxytocin levels. This could impact on their emotional behaviour, and in turn affect their psychological well-being, Daughters added.last_img read more

Fourday literary extravaganza to take place in Kolkata

first_imgTo celebrate the literary, cultural and intellectual spirit of the City of Books, the ninth edition of Apeejay Kolkata Literary Festival is scheduled to be held this January. Starting from January 11, AKLF as always, will heralds the lit fest season in the country. Held for the second year in the scenic environs of the heritage St Paul’s Cathedral, it is the only Festival to have emerged from a bookstore – the iconic Oxford Bookstore. The four-day literary extravaganza is spread across city’s heritage sites like Indian Museum, Harrington Street Art Centre and Goethe Institut and Tollygunge Club apart from St Paul’s Cathedral Lawns. It will be open from 10 am until 9 pm. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfAmong the renowned personalities, Mira Nair, Ashis Nandy, Basharat Peer, Vishal Bhardwaj, Soumitra Chatterjee, Nayantara Sahgal, Shobhaa De, Rashmi Bansal, , Aparna Sen, Salil Tripathi, and others will be attending the 2018 edition.Since its inception in 2010, AKLF has hosted delegates and cultural ambassadors from numerous countries across the globe, as well as highlighted global culture and concerns along with Indian perspectives. The ninth edition of the festival is poised to scale new heights with an outstanding and meticulously curated programme, bringing the world – and the nation – to Kolkata. The participation represents writers from across the globe – from the UK, Australia, Scotland, France, Germany, Spain and other regions, and includes award-winning authors, eminent filmmakers, and poets. Especially curated events for adults and children will be worth witnessing.last_img read more